Invasive exotic species 2016-2021
Raise public awareness about aquatic invasive species
Aquatic invasive species, such as the zebra mussel, common water reed and green crab, are a danger to Quebec biodiversity. They multiply faster than local species and compete with them for the same resources. Citizens need to be aware of these species, so they can help detect them early and limit their spread.
The goal of this project is to produce information sheets that communities, river users (fishers, recreational boaters, municipalities) and citizens can consult at any time.
Improve the detection and monitoring of aquatic invasive species
In the first phase of this project, our experts established new sampling methods for aquatic invasive species (AIS). The goal was to develop monitoring tools to help in the early detection of AIS, when they are still in the precolonization phase, meaning when they are present in low numbers in a given aquatic ecosystem, or to monitor the progression of an already established species.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is a method used to detect the DNA of targeted species in a water sample. Without casting aside traditional monitoring methods such as specimen sampling by capture or collection, eDNA analysis can detect a species even when its DNA is in the water in only very small quantities. A species’ DNA can be found in the water in different forms, such as bodily fluids (gametes, blood, mucus, etc.), organic waste, and even fragments of skin, scales and decomposing structures (leaves, stems, carcasses, etc.).
In the project’s second phase, the goal of our experts is to design and improve AIS monitoring methods. For example, in addition to designing ways to detect a greater number of AISs, some of which are already at Quebec’s doorstep, they will expand the monitoring areas in the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, focus on the areas of greatest concern and increase the annual sampling frequency.
Develop a response plan to control aquatic invasive species
Aquatic invasive species pose a risk to ecosystem health. When they are detected in a new sector of the St. Lawrence, a rapid and effective response is required. A series of measures adapted specifically for the identified species can be implemented. Individuals can be eliminated or their spread limited, for example, by capturing them or installing barriers to block them. In every case, the goal is to control the presence and spread of these species as much as possible.
The initial phase of the SLAP project led to the development of the first version of a response plan to control aquatic invasive species. In the project’s second phase, this plan will be finalized and then tested under real or simulated conditions. These steps will help effectively guide responses on the ground and ensure effective communication between the different actors involved.
Study invasive alien fish species and their impact on freshwater mussels
The freshwater mussels that live in the St. Lawrence River have an unusual method of spreading their progeny: their larvae cling to fish gills and fins. Once metamorphosis takes place, the juvenile mussels drop off and continue their development. However, since the late 1990s, a new invasive fish species has made its way into the river: the round goby.
In the first phase of the SLAP, our specialists showed in the laboratory that freshwater mussel larvae, which are commonly found in the St. Lawrence River, fail to develop normally in the gills of this alien fish species, which releases them before their metamorphosis can be completed. The work to be done in the second phase will help determine the risk posed by invasive alien fish species, like the round goby, to the survival of rare or threatened native freshwater mussels. To achieve this, our specialists will have to use the genetic tools designed in the first phase of the SLAP to identify freshwater mussel larvae clinging to the round goby and other invasive alien fish species found in the St. Lawrence River.
Detect the spread and assess the impacts of alien parasites
In 2012, researchers discovered an exotic parasite, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi, in Lake Saint-Louis. This fish tapeworm introduced into North America by Asian carp can infect a large number of fish families, including cyprinids. The parasite causes weight loss in fish and can result in death, especially in young fish. The pathogen can also infect live baitfish that outfitters sell for sport fishing. In order to limit the spread of aquatic invasive species and pathogenic organisms, Quebec has imposed stricter regulations concerning the use of fish bait.
As part of this project, our experts will study three important aspects of this issue to assess the impact of this exotic parasite. They will examine whether the parasite is spreading and becoming established in the St. Lawrence and identify factors that promote its dispersion (e.g. exotic fish), or limit it (e.g. cold climate). They will assess to what extent the new Quebec legislation on baitfish is effective in preventing sport fishers from spreading the parasite without knowing it. Finally, they will closely monitor the state of health of native fish affected by the parasite.